Nomenclatural Glossary for Zoology

This glossary is based on a text intended to aid indexers in the production of nomenclatural entries for the Zoological Record, the index to world zoological literature published by Thomson Reuters. It covers terminology commonly encountered within publications dealing with the systematics and nomenclature of animals. This version of the glossary has recently been extended to include additional terms listed in the glossary of the new Fourth Edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature published in September 1999, and Article numbers given within definitions refer to this Code.
 
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ABERRATION
a term which, if used to denote a number
of individuals within a species, unequivocally signifies infrasubspecific
rank.
ABBREVIATION
a shortened form of a word or title. In
zoological works genus-group names cited in binomial names of species
are often abbreviated to one or two letters, which should always
be followed by a full stop, and not used on the first mention of
a name; similarly for specific names cited in trinomial names of
subspecies.
ACT, NOMENCLATURAL
a published act which affects the nomenclatural
status of a scientific name or the typification of a nominal taxon;
available nomenclatural act — one that is published in an available
work; invalid — any nomenclatural act which is not valid under
the provisions of the Code (qv); unavailable — one published
in an unavailable work; valid — one that is accepted under
the provisions of the Code ie the earliest available act not contravening
any provision of the Code.
ADOPT
to use an unavailable name as the valid
name of a taxon in a way which establishes it as a new name with
its own authorship and date
affinis, afin.
affinity, relationship, sometimes misleadingly
employed as a synonym for phenetic similarity. (= akin to).
AGGREGATE
a group of species, other than a subgenus,
within a genus; or a group of subspecies within a species. An aggregate
may be denoted by a group name interpolated in parentheses.
alii, aliorum, al.
others, of others.
ALLOTYPE
paratype (qv) of the opposite sex to the
holotype; term not regulated by the Code (qv).
AMBIGUOUS NAME
see Nomen ambiguum.
ANIMAL
for the purposes of the Code (qv) includes
Metazoa and protistan taxa whenever they are or have been treated
as animals for nomenclatural purposes.
ANONYMOUS
— of a work: one that does not state
the name(s) of the author(s)
— of a name or nomenclatural act: one
of which the authorship cannot be determined from the work itself
— of an author: one whose identity
cannot be determined from the work itself
APPLICATION TO THE COMMISSION
any zoologist may submit nomenclatural problems
to the Commission (qv). These are published in the Bulletin of
Zoological Nomenclature.
APPROVED NAME
one given approval by the Commission (qv)
for use in nomenclature.
apud
with, in the work of.
ARTICLES
the mandatory provisions of the Code (qv).
ARTIFICIAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on convenient
or conspicuous diagnostic characters without attention to characters
indicating relationship; often a classification based on a single
arbitrarily chosen character, rather than an evaluation of the totality
of characters.
as such
being strictly what has been cited e.g.
'a photograph as such' is an illustration on light-sensitive paper,
not one printed in a work.
auctorum, auct., auctt.
of authors, often given to indicate that
a name is used in the sense of a number of ubsequent authors and
not in its (different) sense as established by the original author.
auctorum non, auct. non
not of authors.
AUTHOR
the person(s) to whom a work, a scientific
name, or a nomenclatural act is attributed.
AUTHOR CITATION
the name of the authority (qv) for a taxon
name, when cited, should follow the taxon name without any intervening
marks or punctuation. Its citation is optional and may or may not
be followed immediately by the year. Examples:-
A.... Smith 1970
Smith was the first person to validly
publish the name A...., which he did in 1970.
A.... Smith in Jones 1970
Smith was the first person to validly
publish the name A...., which he did within a publication
by Jones in 1970.
A.... Smith 1970 ex Jones 1942
Smith was the first person to validly
publish the name A.... in 1970, but which had formerly
been used by Jones in 1942, but which he had never validly published.
A.... b.... (Smith) 1970 or A....
b.... (Smith 1970)
Smith was the first person to validly
publish the species name b.... in 1970, but which at
the time he put in combination (qv) with another genus name.
A.... c.... (Smith) Jones
Smith was the first person to validly
publish the species name c...., but which at that time
he put in combination (qv) with another genus name. Jones is
responsible for the transfer of the species to genus A.....
A.... b.... [Smith]
The name was originally published anonymously
but from external information the author is known to be Smith.
A.... Smith [1970]
Date of publication established solely
from external evidence e.g. publisher's correspondence.
A.... Smith 1970 non Jones 1860
nec Brown 1967
The genus referred to is specifically
that described by Smith 1970 and not those homonymous (qv) genera
described by Jones 1860 or Brown 1967.
A.... b.... Smith 1970 sensu
Jones 1977
A.... b.... Smith : Jones
A.... b.... : Jones
These all mean that A.... b....
was originally published by Smith, but that this refers specifically
to a subsequent, more restricted usage of the name i.e. as used
by Jones (: may sometimes be given as ;).
A.... b.... auct. non Smith 1970
A.... b.... sensu auct. non Smith 1970
These refer to instances of the use
of A.... b.... by all authors for a taxon which is other
than that as published by Smith 1970.
A.... b.... Smith, partim Jones
A.... b.... Smith, emend. Jones
These both mean Smith originally published
A.... b...., but later Jones further subdivided the species
so that its diagnosis was more limited than that originally
published by Smith. See also Emended diagnosis.
AUTHORITY
the name of the author of a taxonomic name,
cited after the name. See also: Authorship, Author citation.
AUTHORSHIP
the author of a taxonomic name is the person
who alone is responsible for both the name and for the conditions
which make it available (qv) i.e. the diagnosis etc. See also: Author,
Author citation.
AVAILABLE NAME
any name which conforms to all mandatory
provisions of the Code (qv). There are general requirements of publication
and date, language, name formation etc. An available name is not
necessarily a valid name (qv), as an available name may be in synonymy
(qv). Conversely a valid name must always be an available one. Available
names include nomen inviolatum, — conservandum, — perfectum,
— vanum, — correctum, — substitutum, — imperfectum
(all qv).
BINOMEN or BINOMIAL NAME
the combination of two names, the first
being a generic name and the second a specific name, that together
constitute the scientific name of a species; any interpolated names
are not counted as components of a binomen.
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
the system of nomenclature in which a species,
but no taxon or any other rank, is denoted by a combination of two
names
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of binomial nomenclature.
BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE
the official periodical of the International
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
CASTE
in social insects, a group of individuals,
belonging to a particular species or subspecies, differing in form
from other groups of individuals within the same species od subspecies
(e.g. in bees — workers, drones, queens).
CHANGE, MANDATORY
a change in spelling of a name required
by the Code (qv).
CHARACTER
any attribute of organisms used for recognizing,
differentiating or classifying taxa.
CHEIRONYM
see Manuscript name.
citatus, - a, - um, cit.
cited.
CLADISTIC CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on 'recency of
common descent', i.e. categories depend on the position of the branching
points on the inferred phylogenetic tree.
CLASSIFICATION
the ordering of organisms into groups on
the basis of their relationships.
CODE
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
An Authoritative document containing a system of rules and recommendations
to be followed in giving a scientific name to an animal or animal
group. Adopted by the International Congresses (qv) of Zoology (more
recently the International Union of Biological Sciences)and Administered
by the International Commission (qv) on Zoological Nomenclature.
The most recent version of the Code is the Fourth Edition published
in September 1999 and taking effect on January 1st 2000.
COLLECTIVE GROUP
an assemblage of species, or stages of organisms
(e.g. eggs or larvae), that cannot be allocated with confidence
to nominal genera. Names proposed or used for collective groups
are treated as genus-group names but special provisions apply to
them [Article 42.2.1].
COLLECTIVE-GROUP NAME
— a name established expressly for
a collective group
— a name established for a nominal
genus or subgenus and later used for a collective group
COLLECTION
an assemblage of specimens compiled and
maintained for purposes of study and/or display.
COMBINATIO NOVUM, COMB. NOV.
new combination — a combination (qv)
validly published for the first time.
COMBINATION
the name of a species or subspecies consisting
of the name of the genus followed by the specific or specific plus
subspecific names.
COMMISSION
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
(ICZN). The duties and operation of the Commission are regulated
by the Code (qv), and the powers and duties of the Commission are
authorized by the International Zoological Congresses (qv).
COMMON NAME
see Vernacular name.
COMPOUND NAME
one that is formed by the union of two or
more basic components, excluding prefixes and suffixes. e.g. striatoradiatus,
novaeguineae, fritzmuelleri, c-album.
CONDITIONAL
— of the proposal of a name or a type
fixation: one made with stated reservations
— of the inclusion of a taxon in another
taxon at a higher rank: made with stated reservations
confer, cf.
compare.
CONGENERICITY
congeneric species are species belonging
to the same genus. Congeneric applied to generic names usually implies
that the names refer to the same taxon i.e. synonymous genera.
CONSERVE
to set aside or modify any provision of
the Code so as, e.g.
— to preserve or permit the use of
a name as a valid name by removing the obstacles to such use
— to preserve the use of a name in
a taxonomic sense that would otherwise be incorrect
— to deem a work to be published or
available despite its not satisfying the normal criteria
In each case conservation is by a ruling
of the Commission using its Plenary Power (qv).
CONSERVED NAME
a name otherwise unavailable or invalid
that the Commission, by the use of it Plenary Power (qv), has enabled
to be used as a valid name by removal of the known obstacles to
such use.
CONSPECIFICITY
conspecific subspecies are subspecies belonging
to the same species. Conspecific applied to species names usually
implies that the names refer to the same taxon i.e. synonymous species.
COORDINATION, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of coordination.
CORRECTED NAME
see Nomen correctum.
CORRECT ORIGINAL SPELLING
see Original spelling.
CORRIGENDUM
a note published by an author, editor, or
publisher of a work, expressly to cite one or more errors or omissions
in that work together with their correction.
COTYPE
a term not recognized by the Code, formerly
used for either syntype or paratype, but that should not now be
used in zoological nomenclature [Recommendation 73E].
DATE OF PUBLICATION
of a work (and of a contained name and nomenclatural
act): the date on which copies of the work become available by purchase
or free distribution. If the actual date is not known, the date
to be adopted is regulated by the provisions of Article 21.2-7.
DECLARATION
a minor amendment to the Code (qv) for immediate
incorporation, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature,
to remain in force until ratified or rejected by future International
Zoological Congresses (qv).
DEEM
to consider or rule something to be what
it may or may not be.
DEFINITION
a statement in words that purports to give
those characters which, in combination, uniquely distinguish a taxon
[Articles 12 and 13].
DENIED NAME
see Nomen negatum.
DESCRIPTION
a more or less complete statement of the
observed characters of a taxon, without any special emphasis on
those which distinguish it from other closely related taxa. See
also: Definition, Diagnosis, Original description, Redescription.
DESIGNATION
the nomenclatural act of an author or the
Commission in fixing, by an express statement, the name-bearing
type of a newly or previously established nominal genus, subgenus,
species, or subspecies.
ORIGINAL DESIGNATION
the designation of the name-bearing
type of a nominal taxon when it is established.
SUBSEQUENT DESIGNATION
the designation of the name-bearing
type of a nominal taxon published after the nominal taxon was
established.
DIACRITIC MARKS
Article 27 rules that diacritic marks, apostrophes
or diaereses are not to be used in a taxonomic name and are to be
deleted from such names originally published with them. [See Article
32.5.2]. The German umlaut sign deleted from a vowel should be replaced
by 'e' inserted after the vowel, but only for taxonomic names based
on German words and published before 1985.
DIAGNOSIS
a statement in words that purports to give
those characters which differentiate the taxon from other taxa with
which it is likely to be confused.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS
the characters, or most important characters,
which distinguish a taxon from other similar or closely related
taxa. See also: Diagnosis.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
see Diagnosis.
DIRECTION
a term now abandoned; under previous editions
of the Code, a statement published by the Commission, giving the
result of a vote completing or correcting a ruling given in an Opinion.
Directions have been replaced by Official Corrections (qv).
DISCLAIMER
a statement in a work, by an author, editor
or publisher, that
— the entire work or
— all or specified names and nomenclatural
acts in it are to be excluded for purposes of zoological nomenclature
DIVISION
— a rank that if treated as a division
of a genus or subgenus is deemed to be of subgeneric rank for the
purposes of nomenclature
— a taxon at the rank of division
DOUBTFUL NAME
see Nomen dubium.
DUBIOUS NAME
see Nomen dubium.
ELEVATION IN RANK
see Status.
ELIDE
to deliberately omit one or more letters
within a word (as in Article 29.3.1.1).
ELIMINATION, FIXATION BY
see Fixation by elimination
EMENDATION
any demonstrably intentional change in the
original spelling (qv) of an available name [Article 33.2], other
than a mandatory change [Article 34]. (Does not include emendation
of the scope of application of a name, which = emended diagnosis
(qv)).
JUSTIFIED EMENDATION
correction of an incorrect original
spelling, takes authorship and date of original spelling [Article
33.2.2].
UNJUSTIFIED EMENDATION
one made for any other reason, such
names have their own status in nomenclature, taking authorship
and date of their publication [Article 33.2.3].
emendatus, - a, - um, emend.
emendation.
EMENDED DIAGNOSIS
change in the scope of application of a
name, involving a change in the diagnosis (qv) of the taxon. Use
for : Redefinition. (Not the same as emendation qv).
ENTITY, TAXONOMIC
see Taxon.
ERECT
see Establish.
ERROR
in a name, or other word: an incorrect spelling.
COPYIST'S ERROR
an incorrect spelling made in copying.
INADVERTENT ERROR
an incorrect spelling, such as a lapsus
calami, or a copyist's or a printer's error, not intended by
the original author [Article 32.5.1].
PRINTER'S ERROR
an incorrect spelling made in type-setting
(often called typographical error).
ESTABLISH
used of a name = to make available (qv).
et alia, et al.
and others.
ex
from, according to. Sometimes used within
an authority citation (qv).
ex nomine
by or under that name.
ex parte, e.p.
in part. See pro parte.
EXCLUDED NAME
a name that under Article 1.3 cannot be
an available name, or one that has been disclaimed.
exclusus, - a, - um, excl.
excluded — used to indicate elements
included in a taxon by a previous author or authors, but considered
not to belong to it by the writer and excluded from it by him.
EXTANT
— of a taxon: having living representatives
— of a specimen: still in existence
EXTINCT
of a taxon: having no living representatives.
FAMILY GROUP
the highest-ranking group of taxa whose
names are fully regulated by the Code. The family group includes
taxa at the ranks of superfamily, family, subfamily, tribe, and
any other rank below superfamily and above the genus group that
may be required, such as subtribe.
fide
on the authority of, or with reference to
publication, to a cited published statement.
FIELD IDENTIFICATION
the determination of the taxonomic identity
of an individual specimen, under field conditions, often with the
aid of keys etc. See also : Identification.
FIRST REVISER, PRINCIPLE OF THE
See Principle of the first reviser.
FIXATION
a general term for determination of name
bearing type (qv), whether by designation (qv), or by any other
means.
FIXATION BY ELIMINATION
the supposed fixation of a type species
by the subsequent transfer of all but one of the originally included
nominal species from a genus. Not in itself an available method
of type fixation [Article 69.4; but see Article 69.1.1].
FORGOTTEN NAME
see Nomen oblitum.
FORM (FORMA)
— a term that if published after 1960
is deemed to denote infrasubspecific rank but that if published
before 1961 is to be interpreted according to Article 45.6.3-4
— those individuals of a species or
subspecies differing, in a stated way, from other individuals within
the taxon (e.g. larval and adult forms, male and female forms, ecological
forms, and seasonal forms)
FORMULAE, ZOOLOGICAL
modifications of available names throughout
a taxonomic group by the addition of a standard prefix or suffix
in order to indicate that the taxa named are members of that group
[Article 1.3.7]. Zoological formulae are excluded from the provisions
of the Code. The suffixes of family-group names denote ranks, not
taxonomic groups, and do not form zoological formulae.
GENERITYPE
see Type species.
GENEROTYPE
see Type species.
GENOTYPE
a term not recognized by the Code, formerly
used for type species, but that should not now be used in zoological
nomenclature [Recommendation 67A].
GENUS-GROUP
the taxonomic categories genus and subgenus,
including collective groups and ichnotaxa at the genus-group level.
HAPANTOTYPE
one or more preparations consisting of directly
related individuals representing distinct stages in the life cycle,
which together form the name-bearing type in an extant species of
protistan [Article 72.5.4]. A hapantotype, while a series of individuals,
is a holotype that must not be restricted by lectotype selection;
however, if a hapantotype is found to contain individuals of more
than one species, components may be excluded until it contains individuals
of only one species [Article 73.3.2].
HIERARCHY, TAXONOMIC
a system of classification based on a sequence
of taxonomic categories ranked by their increasing levels of inclusiveness.
HOLOTYPE
a single specimen (except in the case of
a hapantotype qv) designated or indicated the type specimen (qv)
by the original author at the time of publication of the original
description.
HOMONYM
each of two or more identical but independently
proposed names for the same or different taxa.
JUNIOR HOMONYM
later published of two homonyms (= a
preoccupied name qv).
SENIOR HOMONYM
earlier published of two homonyms.
PRIMARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species
names, which, at the time of original publication, were proposed
in combination (qv) with the same generic name i.e. the species
were named for different although homonymous genera.
SECONDARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species
names, which, at the time of original publication, were proposed
in combination (qv) with different generic names, but which,
through subsequent transference, have come to bear the same
combination of generic and specific name.
HOMONYM CITATION
authorship (qv) for two or more homonyms
may be cited using 'non' and/or 'nec' as follows:- A....
Smith 1947 non Jones 1958 nec Brown 1960.
HOMONYMY, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of homonymy.
HORIZONTAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) which stresses grouping
together taxa in a similar stage of evolution, rather than location
on the same phyletic line. See also : Vertical classification.
HYBRID NAME
names of progeny of two individuals belonging
to different taxa, names given to hybrids are not normally available
(qv), as they are individuals, not populations, and hence not taxa.
See Articles 1.3.3, 17, 23.8 for treatment of names given to hybrids
and to taxa or hybrid origin.
ibidem, ibid, ib.
the same, in the same place.
ICHNOTAXON
a taxon based on the (fossilized) work of
an animal (qv), including fossilized trails, tracks and burrows
(trace fossils), made by an animals. Such names are covered by provisions
of the current Code.
ICONOTYPE
a drawing or photograph of a type specimen.
IDENTIFICATION
the placing of individual specimens into
previously established taxa, by deductive procedures. The determination
of the taxonomic identity of an individual. See also : Field identification,
Misidentification.
ILLEGITIMATE NAME
see Invalid name.
IMPERFECT NAME
see Nomen imperfectum.
in litteris, in litt.
in correspondence, communicated in writing,
used for an unpublished source acknowledgement.
INAPPROPRIATE NAME
a name that denotes a character, a quality,
or an origin not possessed by the taxon bearing that name.
incertae sedis
of a taxon — one of uncertain taxonomic
position, 'of uncertain seat'.
INCORRECT SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
see Subsequent spelling.
INDICATION
— publication of evidence that a name
proposed before 1931 is available, despite the absence of a definition
or description [Article 12.2]. See also Typification.
ineditus, - a, - um
unpublished
INFRASPECIFIC NAME
a general term for any name below the rank
of species. The term includes subspecific and infrasubspecific names.
INFRASUBSPECIFIC
of a category or name — of lower rank
than the subspecies, and, as such, not subject to regulation by
the Code (qv) e.g. form, race, variety. Article 1.3.4.
INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE
see Code.
INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION
see Commission.
INTERNATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL CONGRESSES
the legislative bodies responsible for the
rules of the Code (qv) and for authorization of the activities of
the Commission (qv).
INTERPOLATED NAME
a name placed within parentheses
— after a generic name to denote a
subgenus
— after a genus-group name to denote
an aggregate of species, or
— after a specific name to denote an
aggregate of subspecies [Article 6]. Names used in this way are
not counted as one of the names in a binomen or trinomen
INVALID NAME
any name (available (qv) or unavailable
(qv)) given to a taxon which is not the valid name (qv).
INVALIDATION
the action of making a name invalid (qv).
May be brought about by suppression (qv) by the Commission.
INVIOLATE NAME
see Nomen inviolatum.
JUNIOR HOMONYM
the later published of two or more identical
but independently proposed names for the same or different taxa.
(= a preoccupied name). See also : Homonym.
JUNIOR SYNONYM
the later published of two or more different
names applied to one and the same taxon. See also : Synonym.
JUSTIFIABLE EMENDATION
see Emendation.
KEY
a tabulation of diagnostic characters (qv)
of taxa in dichotomous couplets to facilitate rapid identification.
Key character — a character of special utility in a key.
KINGDOM
the highest ranked category employed in
the taxonomic hierarchy. (Editions of the Code prior to 4th referred
to a single taxon "Animalia", not widely accepted today,
at the rank of kingdom.).
lapsus calami
a 'slip of the pen', an unintentional error,
especially in spelling taxonomic names. (Compare : Unjustifiable
emendation).
LAW OF HOMONYMY
see Homonymy, principle of.
LAW OF PRIORITY
see Priority, principle of.
LEGITIMATE NAME
see Valid name.
LECTOTYPE
one of several syntypes (qv), designated
by any author after the original publication of a species name as
the 'type specimen' (qv) for the taxonomic name. Designated only
where there was no original holotype (qv) [Article 74].
LIST OF AVAILABLE NAMES IN ZOOLOGY
the cumulative term for those parts of the
List of Available Names in Zoology which have been adopted
by the Commission under Article 79.
LINE PRECEDENCE
when two different names for the same taxon
are first published in the same publication, then the one which
appears on the earlier line has line precedence. (See also : Page
precedence). Line precedence does not necessarily mean priority
as well — this is determined by the action of the first reviser
(qv).
loco citato, loc. cit., l.c.
in the place cited, used to avoid repetition
of a bibliographic reference already given.
MANDATORY CHANGE
see Change, mandatory
MANUSCRIPT NAME
an unpublished (qv) taxonomic name, may
be intended for eventual publication or be used in correspondence
or in public speech. Have no standing in nomenclature until they
are acceptably published.
mihi, m.
to me, dative singular of ego, I. Used after
a name to indicate the writer's responsibility for its proposal.
MISAPPLY
to apply, deliberately or otherwise, a name
in a sense which is not correct under the provisions of the Code
(e.g. in a manner not in accord with the name-bearing type).
MISIDENTIFICATION
the misapplication of a previously established
taxon name to an individual specimen. See also : Identification.
MONOTYPY
a situation where a genus group taxon is
established with only one immediately subordinate taxon. e.g. a
genus containing only one species. See also Subsequent monotypy.
mutatis characteribus, mut. char.
with the characters changed (by), used in
same way as emendatus (qv).
NAKED NAME
see Nomen nudum.
NAME-BEARING TYPE
the type genus, type species, holotype,
lectotype, series of syntypes (which, together, form the name- bearing
type), neotype, type slide, or hapantotype, that provides the objective
standard of reference whereby the application of the name of a taxon
can be determined.
natio
race.
NATURAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on inferences
concerning the phylogenetic relationships of animals (i.e. evolutionary
classification).
nec
and not (of), nor (of).
NEOTYPE
a specimen selected as type specimen (qv)
subsequent to the original description in cases where the original
holotype (qv), or lectotype (qv), or all paratypes (qv), or all
syntypes (qv) are lost or destroyed, or suppressed by the Commission.
NEW COMBINATION
see Comb. nov.
NEW NAME
see Nomen novum.
NEW REPLACEMENT NAME
see Nomen novum
NEW SCIENTIFIC NAME
a scientific name, available or unavailable,
when first proposed for a taxon.
NEW STATUS
see Status.
nobis, nob., n.
to us, dative plural of ego, I. Used after
a name to indicate the author's responsibility for its proposal.
NOMEN AMBIGUUM
ambiguous name, one which has been used
so long by different authors in different senses that it has become
a persistent cause of error and confusion.
NOMEN COLLECTIVUM
see Collective group.
NOMEN CONSERVANDUM (NOMINA CONSERVATA)
names classed as available and valid by
action of the ICZN exercising its Plenary Powers (qv). Includes
rulings to conserve junior synonyms in place of rejected forgotten
names (nomen oblitum qv). Such names are entered on the Official
Lists (qv).
NOMEN CORRECTUM (NOMINA CORRECTA)
corrected names or 'improved' names, available
names which are mandatory and allowable emendations of imperfect
names (qv) or of taxonomic names higher than family (which are not
subject to name form and ending regulations). Do not depend on transfer
in taxon rank or assignment. (= an emended name).
NOMEN DUBIUM (NOMINA DUBIA)
doubtful or dubious names, names which are
not certainly applicable to any known taxon or for which the evidence
is insufficient to permit recognition of the taxon to which they
belong. May possess availability conducive to uncertainty and instability.
NOMEN IMPERFECTUM (NOMINA IMPERFECTA)
imperfect names, available names which when
originally published met all mandatory requirements of the Code
(i.e. met all criteria of availability (qv) — Articles 10-20)
but which contained some defect needing correction, such as names
incorporating hyphens, diacritical marks or apostrophes, higher
taxon names using an incorrectly formed stem.
NOMEN INQUIRENDUM (NOMINA INQUIRENDA)
'names under enquiry'. See Nomen dubium.
NOMEN INVIOLATUM (NOMINA INVIOLATA)
inviolate names, all available names not
subject to any sort of alteration from their originally published
form i.e. they were correct as originally published and need no
correction or emendation (qv).
NOMEN NEGATUM (NOMINA NEGATA)
denied names, unavailable names which are
incorrect original spellings (qv) as defined by the Code.
nomen non rite publicatum., nom. non
rite public.
name not properly published. See : Unpublished
name, Manuscript name.
NOMEN NOVUM (= NOM NOV )
new name which is expressly proposed as
a replacement name for a preoccupied name (qv), automatically takes
the same type and type locality. (= a replacement name or substitute
name for a preoccupied name). Commonly applied to names proposed
to replace junior homonyms (qv).
NOMEN NUDUM (NOMINA NUDA)
a Latin term referring to a name that, if
published before 1931, fails to conform to Article 12; or, if published
after 1930, fails to conform to Article 13. A nomen nudum is not
an available name, and therefore the same name may be made available
later for the same or a different concept; in such a case it would
take authorship and date [Articles 50, 21] from that act of establishment,
not from any earlier publication as a nomen nudum.
NOMEN NULLUM (NOMINA NULLA)
null names, unavailable names which as defined
by the Code are non demonstrably intentional changes of an original
spelling i.e. a form of incorrect subsequent spelling (qv).
NOMEN OBLITUM (NOMINA OBLITA)
forgotten names, senior synonyms which have
remained unused in the literature for many years. Have been treated
differently by different editions of the Code, and remain unavailable
names.
NOMEN PERFECTUM (NOMINA PERFECTA)
perfect names, available names which when
originally published met all mandatory requirements of the Code
and needed no correction of any kind, but which are validly alterable
by change of ending.
NOMEN PROTECTUM
"protected name" applied to a
name which has been given precedence over it unused senior synonym
or senior homonym relegated to the status of nomen oblitum (qv,
and see Article 23.9.2).
NOMEN SUBSTITUTUM (NOMINA SUBSTITUTA)
substitute name, any available name whether
new or not, proposed as replacement for any invalid name, such as
a junior homonym. A substitute name proposed specifically for a
preoccupied name is a nomen novum (qv).
NOMEN TRANSLATUM (NOMINA TRANSLATA)
transferred names, available names which
have been altered (usually in endings only), the change depending
on transfer from one taxonomic rank to another, or from one taxon
to another. e.g. Spirifer ambiguus changed to new combination
(qv) Composita ambigua: Orthidae downgraded to Orthinae etc.
Authorship and date remains as for original name.
NOMEN TRIVIALE
trivial name, an expression used by Linnaeus
and others for the specific name. Applied by some authors in same
sense as vernacular name (qv).
NOMEN VANUM (NOMINA VANA)
vain names, available names consisting of
unjustified but intentional emendations (qv) of previously published
names. Have status in nomenclature with their own authorship and
date.
NOMEN VETITUM (NOMINA VETITA)
impermissible names, unavailable names published
for divisions of the genus group other than genus and subgenus,
which are not accepted by the Code. e.g. a subsection of a subgenus.
NOMENCLATURAL STATUS
of a name, nomenclatural act or work: its
standing in nomenclature (i.e. its availability or otherwise, and
in the case of a name its spelling, the typification of the nominal
taxon it denotes, and its precedence relative to other names).
NOMENCLATURE
the description of new taxa or alterations
to the concept of previously described taxa which involve changes
in the names of taxa.
NOMINAL TAXON
a named taxon, objectively defined by its
type taxon. Thus the nominal family MUSCIDAE is always the one to
which its nominal type genus, Musca, belongs.
NOMINATE SUBORDINATE TAXON
a subordinate taxon which bears the same
names as its immediate higher taxon (with endings altered according
to rank for higher taxa). Thus Grus grus is the nominate
species of the genus Grus.
NOMINOTYPICAL TAXON
the nominal taxon at a subordinate rank
within the family group, the genus group, or the species group that
contains the name-bearing type of a divided taxonomic taxon of that
group.
NULL NAME
see Nomen nullum.
NUMERICAL TAXONOMY
study of the relationships of taxa by the
application of numerical similarity values to characters so as to
rank into categories based on degree of overall similarity.
NUMERICLATURE
an attempt to express the natural order
(i.e. classification qv) of animals in numbers, so that each taxon
name is represented by a numerical code, the structure of which
indicates its taxonomic position, rank and affinities.
OBJECTIVE
demonstrably true, not a matter of individual
opinion; for contrast with subjective.
OBJECTIVE SYNONYM
each of two or more different names applied
to one and the same taxon based on the same type. See also : Synonym.
OFFICIAL CORRECTION
a correction, issued by the Commission,
or an error or omission in a previously published opinion. See also
: Direction.
OFFICIAL INDEX
a list of names or works suppressed (qv)
or declared invalid by action of the Commission (qv). The following
are compiled and maintained:-
— Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names
in Zoology
— Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in
Zoology
— Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names
in Zoology

— Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works in Zoological
Nomenclature

OFFICIAL LIST
a list of names or works which have been
conserved (qv) or declared valid by action of the Commission (qv).
The following are compiled and maintained:-
— Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology

— Official List of Generic Names in Zoology
— Official List of Specific Names in Zoology
— Official List of Works Approved as Available for Zoological
Nomenclature

see also : List of Available Names in
Zoology.
OFFPRINT
see Separate.
opera citato, op. cit.
in the work cited, used to avoid the repetition
of part of a bibliographic reference already given.
OPINION
a decision of the Commission (qv) involving
a question of application of the Code (qv) to a particular name
and situation, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.
ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION
the description of a nominal taxon when
it is established. See also : Description, Original diagnosis.
ORIGINAL DIAGNOSIS
a formal statement of characters which distinguish
a taxon from other similar or closely related taxa, published at
the time of proposal of a new taxonomic name. See also : Diagnosis,
Original description.
ORIGINAL PUBLICATION
— the work in which a name or nomenclatural
act was first published
— of a name or nomenclatural act: publication
for the first time
ORIGINAL SPELLING
the original spelling of a name is to be
kept as the 'correct original spelling' unless it does not meet
the requirements of the Code Article 32.5.
— incorrect original spelling —
an original spelling that is incorrect
— multiple original spellings —
two or more different original spellings for the same name
ORIGINALLY INCLUDED NOMINAL SPECIES
of a nominal genus-group taxon: the nominal
species deemed to be originally included under Article 67.2.
orthographia mutata, orth. mut.
with an altered spelling (by).
PAGE PRECEDENCE
when two names for the same taxon are first
published in the same publication, then the one which appears on
the earlier page has precedence. Page precedence does not necessarily
mean priority (qv) as well — this is determined by the action
of the first reviser (qv). See also : Line precedence.
PARALECTOTYPE
any one of the original syntypes (qv) remaining
after the selection of a lectotype (qv).
PARATYPE
every specimen in a type series other than
the holotype (qv) which were before the author at the time of preparation
of the original description and were so designated and indicated
there.
PART OF THE LIST OF AVAILABLE NAMES IN
ZOOLOGY
(qv). A list, adopted by the Commission
under Article 79, of available names in a major taxonomic field.
PERFECT NAME
see Nomen perfectum.
PHENETIC CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) based on degree of overall
similarity.
PHENOTYPE
the total characteristics of an individual
(i.e. its appearance) resulting from interaction between its genotype
(qv) and its environment.
PLENARY POWERS
the Commission (qv) is empowered by use
of its Plenary Powers (qv) to prevent the application of a rule
of the Code (qv) where such application in a particular case would
disturb the stability or universality or cause confusion in zoological
nomenclature. Articles 78, 81.
PLESIOTYPE
a specimen identified by a subsequent author
as belonging to a particular species.
POTENTIALLY VALID NAME
an available name which is not objectively
invalid.
PRECEDENCE
the order of seniority of available names
or nomenclatural acts determined
— by application of the Principle of
Priority as specified in Article 23, or
— in the case of simultaneously published
names or acts, as specified in Article 24, or
— by a ruling of the Commission using
its Plenary Power (qv)
PREPRINT
a work published, with its own specified
date of publication (imprint date), in advance of its later reissue
as part of a collective or cumulative work. Preprints may be published
works for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. See also : Separate.
PREOCCUPIED NAME
the later published of two identical but
independently proposed names for the same or different taxa. = Junior
homonym (qv).
PREVAILING USAGE
see Usage, prevailing
PRIMARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species names,
which, at the time of original publication, were proposed in combination
with the same generic name i.e. the species were named for different,
though homonymous genera. See also : Homonym.
PRINCIPLE OF BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE
the principle that the scientific name of
a species, and not of a taxon at any other rank, is a combination
of two names (a binomen, qv); the use of a trinomen (qv) for the
name of a subspecies and of uninominal names for taxa above the
species group is in accord with the Principle. See Articles 5, 11.4.
PRINCIPLE OF COORDINATION
the principle that within the family group,
genus group or species group a name established for a taxon at any
rank in the group is deemed to be simultaneously established with
the same author and date for taxa based on the same name-bearing
type at other ranks in the group [Articles 36, 43, 46].
PRINCIPLE OF THE FIRST REVISER
the principle that the relative precedence
of two or more names or nomenclatural acts published on the same
date, or of different original spellings of the same name, is determined
by the First Reviser [Article 24.2].
PRINCIPLE OF HOMONYMY
the principle that the name of each taxon
must be unique. Consequently a name that is a junior homonym of
another name must not be used as a valid name [Article 52].
PRINCIPLE OF PRIORITY
the principle that the valid name of a taxon
is the oldest available name applied to it (taking into consideration
the other provisions of Article 23), provided that the name is not
invalidated by any provision of the Code or by any ruling by the
Commission [Article 23].
PRINCIPLE OF TYPIFICATION
the principle that each nominal taxon in
the family group, genus group or species group has, actually or
potentially, a name-bearing type fixed to provide the objective
standard of reference by which the application of the name is determined
[Article 61] (see Typification).
PRIORITY, OF A NAME OR NOMENCLATURAL
ACT
seniority fixed by the date of availability.
PRIORITY, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of priority.
pro parte, p. p.
in part, used in author citations to show
that only part of a taxon, as defined by a previous author, is being
referred to by the writer.
PROPOSAL TO COMMISSION
see Application to commission.
PROTECTED NAME
See Nomen protectum.
PROTISTAN
an organism classified in the Protista.
Some such organisms (e.g. those formerly classified as Protozoa)
are usually treated as animals for the purposes of nomenclature,
and when so treated their names are regulated by the Code [Article
1.1.1].
PROVISIONS
term equivalent to rules.
PUBLICATION
— any published work
— the issuing of a work conforming
to Articles 8 and 9
PUBLISHED NAME
any name which is printed and circulated
(i.e. meets the criteria of publication as stated by the Code Articles
8 & 9), may be available, unavailable, valid or invalid.
RACE
an infrasubspecific (qv) category which
has no status under the Code.
RANK
the level, for nomenclatural purposes, of
a taxon in a taxonomic hierarchy (e.g. all families are for nomenclatural
purposes at the same rank, which lies between superfamily and subfamily).
RECOMMENDATION BY COMMISSION
published along with the Code (qv), indicate
the best procedure in cases not strictly covered by application
of the rules. Compliance with them is not mandatory but highly advisable.
REDEFINITION
see Emended diagnosis.
REDESCRIPTION
a more or less complete statement of the
observed characters of a taxon, without any special emphasis on
those which distinguish it from other closely related taxa, including
new or altered information to that usually given in the description
(qv).
REDUCTION IN STATUS
see Status.
REFERRAL
transfer of a subordinate taxon from one
taxon to another e.g. species removed from one genus and referred
to another, genus removed from one family and referred to another.
REFUSAL BY COMMISSION
the Commission (qv) may refuse to use its
Plenary Powers (qv) in any given case proposed to it. In such a
case the Opinion (qv) rendered is to specify the name(s) to be used
in the case in question, and the action (if any) to be taken.
REINSTATE
with reference to a name previously rejected
as being a junior secondary homonym: to treat it as a valid name
if the conditions of Article 59.4 are met.
REJECT
to set aside, in accord with the provisions
of the Code and, in the case of a name, taxonomic judgement,
— a work for the purposes of zoological
nomenclature, or
— a name in favour of another name
REJECTED NAME
— a name which, under the provisions
of the Code, cannot be used as a valid name and which is set aside
in favour of another name
— a name which, as a matter of taxonomic
judgement, is either treated as a junior subjective synonym (qv)
of a name used as valid or is believed not to be applicable to the
taxon under consideration
REPLACEMENT NAME
see Nomen novum and Nomen substitutum.
REPRINT
for the purposes of the Code, the same as
a separate (qv).
REVISER, FIRST
see First reviser.
REVISION
the presentation of new material or new
interpretations integrated with previous knowledge through summary
and reevaluation for a particular taxon.
rite
properly, correctly, according to the rules.
RULES
the Articles of the Code but not titles,
Recommendations, and Examples. The rules are mandatory. A term equivalent
to provisions.
saltem
at least.
scheda, sched.
label (or a specimen).
SCIENTIFIC NAME
formal nomenclatural designation of a taxon.
= Taxonomic name. Conforms to Code Article 1, as opposed to a vernacular
name. A scientific name is not necessarily available.
SECONDARY HOMONYM
each of two or more identical species names,
which, at the time of original publication, were proposed in combination
(qv) with different generic names, but which, through subsequent
transference, have come to bear the same combination of generic
and specific names. See also : Homonym.
SECTION
— a rank that if treated as a division
of a genus or subgenus is deemed to be of subgeneric rank for the
purposes of nomenclature [Article 10.4]
— a taxon at the rank of section
secundum, sec.
according to.
sedis incertae
see incertae sedis.
SENIOR HOMONYM
the earlier published of two or more identical
but independently proposed names for the same or different taxa.
See also : Homonym.
SENIOR SYNONYM
the earlier published of two or more different
names applied to one and the same taxon. See also : Synonym.
sensu
a latin term meaning "in the sense
of". Often used to refer to the usage of a name by a (cited)
author in a sense different from that of the original author or
some other previous author.
sensu amplo
see sensu lato.
sensu lato, sens. lat., s.l.
in the broad sense i.e. of a taxon —
including all its subordinate taxa and/or other taxa sometimes considered
as distinct.
sensu stricto, sens. str., s.s.
in the strict sense, in the narrow sense.
Most often used to indicate the nominate subordinate taxon (qv)
(e.g. A.... b.... s.s. = A.... b.... b....; A....
s.s. = A.... (A....) etc.). Or it may just indicate exclusion
of similar taxa sometimes united with it.
SEPARATE
a copy (reprint or offprint) of a work contained
in a periodical, book or other larger work, intended for distribution
(usually privately by the author(s) detached from the larger work
which contains it but without its own specified date of publication
(imprint date). The advance distribution of separates after 1999
does not constitute publication for purposes of zoological nomenclature.
seu
either, or.
sic
this, to signalize exact transcription.
sine
without.
SPECIES GROUP
the taxonomic categories species and subspecies.
SPECIES INDETERMINATA, SP. INDET.
undetermined species, one not identifiable
with the description for a name already published. Usually given
with a generic name only e.g. A.... sp. indet.
SPECIES INQUIRENDUM (= SPECIES INQUIRENDA)
a species to be queried, a doubtfully identified
(qv) species requiring further investigation. See also Nomen inquirendum.
SPECIFIC NAME
the second name in a binomen and in a trinomen
[Article 5].
SPELLING, ORIGINAL
see Original spelling.
SPELLING, SUBSEQUENT
see Subsequent spelling.
SPELLING, VARIANT
see Variant spellings.
STABILITY OF NOMENCLATURE
the Preamble of the Code (qv) states 'the
object of the Code is to promote stability' — one of the most
important rules of the Code. If strict application of the rules
of the Code threaten stability in an individual case then application
of those rules may be suspended by the Commission (qv) under its
Plenary Powers (qv).
STATUS
the status of a taxon indicates the rank
(i.e. level in hierarchy of taxonomic categories) to which it belongs
e.g. genus, subfamily etc. The status of a taxon may be elevated
or reduced (with accompanying ending change when necessary), and
this has no bearing on the authorship of the taxon. e.g. Subfamily
A....inae Smith 1972 may be elevated (raised) to family A....idae
Smith 1972 genus B.... Jones 1960 may be reduced (lowered)
to subgenus A.... (B....) Jones 1960
STATUS NOVUS, STAT. NOV.
new status, representing a change in status
(qv).
STATUTE OF LIMITATION
see Limitation, statute of.
STRICKLAND CODE
a code of nomenclature prepared by a committee
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, first
published in 1842. See also : Code.
SUBJECTIVE
depending on judgement, a matter of individual
opinion; for contrast with objective.
SUBJECTIVE SYNONYM
each of two or more different names applied
to one and the same taxon based on different types, but regarded
as referring to the same taxon by those who hold them to be synonyms.
See also : Synonym.
SUBORDINATE TAXON
a taxon at a lower rank than the taxon of
the same coordinate group with which it is compared.
SUBSEQUENT MONOTYPY
the situation arising when a nominal genus
or subgenus was established before 1931 without any included nominal
species, and when only a single taxonomic species denoted by an
available name was first subsequently referred to it [Article 69.3].
SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
any change in the original spelling (qv)
of a name becomes a subsequent spelling. See Code Article 33.
CORRECT SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
brought about by justified emendations
(qv) of the original spelling.
INCORRECT SUBSEQUENT SPELLING
a change in spelling other than a justified
emendation (qv).
SUBSPECIFIC NAME
the third name in a trinomen [Article 5.2].
SUBSTITUTE NAME
any available name, whether new or not,
used to replace an older available name. See Emendation, New replacement
name (Nomen novum), synonym.
SUPPRESSION
a form of invalidation (qv). A name which
would be valid (qv) according to strict application of the rules
of the Code, may be expressly suppressed by the Commission (qv),
under its Plenary Powers (qv), to allow validation of another name,
which would not otherwise have been valid (i.e. according to the
rules of the Code); converts a previously valid name into an invalid
one.
SYNONYM
each of two or more different names applied
to one and the same taxon. See also : Junior synonym, Senior synonym,
Objective synonym & Subjective synonym
SYNONYMY
— the relationships between different
names applied to the same taxon.
— a chronological list of taxonomic
names which have been applied to a single taxon, including authors
and dates. When this includes bibliographic references for the name
= Full Bibliographical Synonymy.
SYNTYPE
each specimen of a type series (qv) from
which neither a holotype nor a lectotype has been designated. The
syntypes collectively constitute the name-bearing type.
SYSTEMATICS
studies of the kinds and diversity of organisms
and of any and all the relationships among them i.e. the science
of the diversity of organisms — deals with populations, species
and higher taxa.
TAUTONYMY
one and the same name applied both to a
genus-group name and to an included species-group name e.g. Bison
bison.
ABSOLUTE TAUTONYMY
the identical spelling of a generic
or subgeneric name and the specific or subspecific name of one
of its originally included nominal species or subspecies [Articles
18, 68.4].
LINNAEAN TAUTONYMY
the identical spelling of a new generic
or subgeneric name established before 1931 and a pre- 1758 name
cited as a synonym of only one of the species or subspecies
originally included in that genus [Article 68.5].
VIRTUAL TAUTONYMY
the nearly identical spelling, or the
same origin or meaning, of a generic or subgeneric name and
the specific or subspecific name in a binomen or trinomen. Not
a term regulated by the Code [but see Recommendation 69A.2].
TAXONOMIC GROUP
a taxon with all its subordinate taxa and
their individuals; e.g. the taxonomic group Insecta consists of
all insects and their taxa.
TAXONOMIC NAME
see Scientific name.
TAXONOMY
studies of the relationships of taxa, including
positional changes which do not involve changes in the names of
taxa. See also : Nomenclature, Systematics.
tomo citato, tom. cit.
in the volume cited, used to avoid repetition
of part of a bibliographic reference already given.
TOPOTYPE
a specimen collected at the type locality
(qv), not necessarily part of the type series and not regulated
by the Code.
TOPOTYPICAL POPULATION
population occurring at the type locality
(qv) from which the type specimen (qv) was taken.
TRACE FOSSILS
see Work of an animal.
TRANSFERRED NAME
see Nomen translatum.
TRINOMEN
the combination of a generic name, a specific
name, and a subspecific name, that together constitute a scientific
name (qv) subspecies.
TRIVIAL NAME
see Nomen triviale.
TYPE
the standard of reference for determining
the precise application of a name. Each taxon has, actually or potentially,
a type.
— Type of a nominal species is a specimen (type specimen)
— Type of a nominal genus is the nominal species (type species)
— Type of a nominal family is the nominal genus (type genus)
TYPE DESIGNATION
determination of the type (qv) of a taxon.
(= Type selection).
TYPE GENUS
the type (qv) of a taxon at the family group
level (i.e. family, subfamily, tribe etc.) — the nominal genus.
TYPE HORIZON
the geological stratum from which the name-bearing
type of a nominal species or subspecies was collected.
TYPE HOST
the host species with which the name-bearing
type of a nominal species or subspecies was associated.
TYPE LOCALITY
the geographical (and, where relevant, stratigraphical)
location of the occurrence of the population from which the type
specimen (qv) (i.e. holotype, lectotype or neotype) was taken. Population
occurring at type locality = topotypical population. Specimens collected
at type locality = topotypes.
TYPE MATERIAL
a collective term for all type specimens
(qv). Zoologists should ensure that such material is transferred
as quickly as possible to public institutions where their safety
is guaranteed and they are accessible to other workers.
TYPE SELECTION
see Type designation.
TYPE SERIES
the series of specimens which either constitutes
the name-bearing type (syntypes) of a nominal species or subspecies
or from which the name-bearing type has been or may be designated.
TYPE SPECIES
the nominal species that is the name-bearing
type of a nominal genus or subgenus.
TYPE SPECIMEN
any specimen of the type series.
TYPIFICATION, PRINCIPLE OF
see Principle of typification.
typus conservandus, typ. cons.
a type to be conserved.
UNAVAILABLE NAME
a name which does not meet all mandatory
provisions of the Code (qv). Articles 10-20 or that is an excluded
name under Article 1.3. Has no status in nomenclature. See also
: Available name. Unavailable names include nomen nudum, —
negatum, — vetitum, — nullum, — oblitum (all qv).
UNJUSTIFIABLE EMENDATION
see Emendation.
UNINOMINAL
consisting of a single name (e.g. names
of the family group and of the genus group).
UNPUBLISHED NAME
any name which has not been printed and
circulated to meet the criteria of publication as stated by the
Code Articles 7-9.
USAGE, PREVAILING
of a name: that usage of the name which
is adopted by at least a substantial majority of the most recent
authors concerned with the relevant taxon, irrespective of how long
ago their work was published.
VAIN NAME
see Nomen vanum.
VALID NAME
the correct name for a given taxon, which
may have several available names (qv), one of which (usually the
oldest) is chosen as the valid name. The valid name is always an
available name (qv) (the reverse is not always true). An invalid
name may be either an available or unavailable name.
VALIDATION
the action of making a name valid (qv).
VARIANT SPELLINGS
different spellings of specific or subspecific
names that are deemed to be identical for the purposes of the Principle
of Homonymy [Article 58].
VARIETY
a term that if published after 1960 is deemed
to denote infrasubspecific rank but that if published before 1961
is to be interpreted according to Article 45.6.3-4.
vere
the true.
VERNACULAR NAMES
the colloquial names of taxa i.e. in any
language or form other than that of zoological nomenclature. Have
no status in nomenclature.
VERTICAL CLASSIFICATION
classification (qv) which stresses common
descent and tends to unite ancestral and descendant groups of a
phyletic line in a single higher taxon, separating them from contemporaneous
taxa having reached a similar grade of evolutionary change. Compare
: Horizontal classification.
vide
see.
WORK OF AN ANIMAL
results of the activity but not part of
the animal itself e.g. tracks, trails, worm-tubes, borings (but
excludes some fossil evidence such as internal moulds, external
impressions and replacements). Names given to them are covered by
certain rules of the Code Articles 1.2.1, 1.3.6, 10.3, 12.2.8.
ZOOLOGICAL CONGRESSES
see International Zoological Congresses.
ZOOLOGICAL NAME
the scientific name of an animal taxon in
binominal nomenclature.
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE
the system of scientific names for animal
taxa and the provisions for the formation, treatment, and use of
those names.

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